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Safety in Question: Complications Arising from Paragard IUD Malfunctions

The Paragard IUD has gained popularity as a non-hormonal, long-term contraceptive option, offering effective birth control without the use of hormones. While it is generally considered a safe and reliable method, there have been cases where the device malfunctions, leading to potential health complications.

In this article, we will explore the long-term impact of Paragard IUD malfunctions and the health risks associated with such occurrences.

Understanding Paragard IUD Malfunctions

According to TorHoerman law, the Paragard IUD is a popular contraceptive choice for many women due to its non-hormonal nature and long-term effectiveness. It is a T-shaped device composed of plastic and copper, functioning by releasing copper ions that are toxic to sperm, thereby preventing fertilization.

Inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional, the Paragard IUD offers contraceptive protection for up to ten years.

While generally considered safe, there have been reported cases of malfunctions associated with the Paragard IUD, which can lead to severe health consequences for some women.

One notable case is that of Georgia Bowers, who filed a Paragard lawsuit against Teva and Cooper Surgical in September 2020. Bowers received her Paragard IUD in January 2017 and sought its removal in September of the same year. During an ultrasound, it was discovered that the IUD was improperly positioned in her uterus.

Despite the doctor’s adherence to the appropriate removal procedures, only part of the IUD was retrieved, as one arm of the device was missing. Efforts were made to extract the broken piece through colposcopy, but unfortunately, the retrieval was unsuccessful.

The case of Georgia Bowers highlights the potential risks associated with Paragard IUD malfunctions and the importance of proper insertion and removal procedures.

As of April 17, 2023, there were a substantial number of Paragard lawsuits pending in federal court in Georgia under MDL number 2974, with a total of 1,780 cases filed. These lawsuits reflect the concerns raised by numerous women who have experienced adverse effects related to Paragard IUD use.

Possible Health Complications Arising from Paragard IUD Malfunctions

While the Paragard IUD can provide an effective and convenient contraceptive option for many women, it is essential to stay informed about potential risks and complications.

Uterine Perforation

Uterine perforation is a rare but severe complication associated with Paragard IUD malfunctions, occurring when the device migrates from its original position and punctures the uterine wall. According to a study of 327,000 women, it was determined that the rate of perforation cases due to IUD insertion was 0.6%.

The study also identified specific factors that influence the risk of perforation, such as a significant seven-fold increase when the IUD was inserted between four days and six weeks postpartum and a one-third increase during breastfeeding.

Conversely, the risk of perforation was relatively lower in women who were more than a year beyond delivery, those who had never given birth, and when the insertion occurred during delivery.

Uterine perforation can have life-threatening consequences, including internal bleeding, infection, and potential damage to nearby organs, underscoring the urgent need for immediate medical attention in such cases.

Thus, the study emphasizes the importance of considering individual circumstances when determining the appropriate timing for IUD insertion to effectively mitigate risks.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Paragard IUD malfunctions can increase the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a condition diagnosed in over 1 million women annually in the United States. When the IUD becomes dislodged or broken, it provides an opportunity for bacteria to enter the uterus, leading to infection and inflammation of the female reproductive organs.

This bacterial infection can cause a range of complications, including the formation of abscesses within the fallopian tubes or ovaries. The consequences of PID may include chronic pelvic pain, fertility issues, and in severe cases, ectopic pregnancy.


Another concern associated with Paragard IUD malfunctions is unintended expulsion, wherein the device is partially or completely expelled from the uterus. This event can be caused by factors such as incorrect insertion, uterine contractions, or other unknown reasons.

When expulsion happens, women may encounter symptoms like increased menstrual bleeding, irregular periods, and a loss of contraceptive efficacy. According to BioMed Central, this risk of unintentional expulsion affects approximately 6% of the general population using IUDs.


In certain cases, the Paragard IUD has the potential to migrate to other areas within the pelvic region, resulting in discomfort, pain during sexual intercourse, and an elevated risk of organ damage. As reported by the National Institute of Health, about 80% of IUDs migrate to the peritoneal cavity after perforation.

Allergic Reactions

Though rare, some women may experience allergic reactions to the copper material in the Paragard IUD. Allergic responses can manifest as localized irritation, inflammation, or more severe systemic reactions.

Long-Term Consequences and Management

The long-term consequences of Paragard IUD malfunctions can significantly impact a woman’s reproductive health and overall well-being. In cases of uterine perforation, prompt medical intervention is vital to prevent further complications and to ensure the IUD is safely removed.

For women who experience PID or chronic inflammation due to IUD malfunctions, long-term fertility issues may arise. Proper management of infections and timely removal of the IUD are crucial steps in preventing lasting damage.


While the Paragard IUD is generally considered a safe and effective contraceptive option, it is crucial to be aware of potential malfunctions and their associated health risks.

Timely medical intervention and ongoing communication with healthcare providers are essential for managing and minimizing the long-term impact of these complications. Women should weigh the benefits and risks carefully before choosing the Paragard IUD as their contraceptive method, and if any unusual symptoms occur, they should seek medical attention promptly.

By staying knowledgeable and taking an active role, women can make well-informed choices about their reproductive health and overall well-being.

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