Apparel and textile export in India is slated to reach $65 billion within the coming year from its previous level of $40 billion for the 2013-14 fiscal year. The main textile zones in India are at Indore, Mumbai, Kashmir, Bengaluru, and Ahmadabad. The India textile manufacturers have a positive bearing since the yarn export to China strengthened for the November 2016 period. However, the overall showing in this sector showed a decrease of $0.11 per kilogram over the previous month at $261.1 million.
Use of textiles
Textile finds use in various aspects of our daily life such as for suiting fabric, pillows, window dressing, table and kitchen linen, and much more. For all these, one needs a range of activities that include yarn dyeing and weaving, garment designing and manufacturing. Currently, the textile industry is looking at suede based fabrics neon dyeing, and Lycra based fabrics to cater to the demands of the fashion industry.
Leaders in textile manufacture
India Brand Equity Foundation IBEF lists brands such as Richa Industries Limited, Arvind, Bombay Dyeing, Digjam, and The Victoria Mills Ltd in their top textile company list.These companies use knitting machines with a speed of 50 revolution/minute and producing 1500 kg/day compared to the produce in 2006 when the machines could only make 300kg/day.
Different manufacturing processes
In the garment manufacturing process, we find three kinds of fabric. These are weaving, non-weaving, and knitting. The main characteristic of the knitted fabric is the use of loop formation in the production. In the process that turns fibre into yarn and yarn into fabric, cotton takes the top position among the preferred natural fibre.
Types of spinning
Most of the spinning used for yarn manufacture is the open-end or break spinning. In this you have a rotating drum into which the staples are put. Air is blown and this forces the staples to catch the tail of the newly formed yarn. This they wind on to a bobbin. Checking is the process where the bobbins are made tighter.
In the weaving process, one sees the use of the loom. The fibres are laid crosswise over each other. They are called weft and the warp. The threads laid across the breadth (weft) are carried through the loom by a shuttle. They then go over a prin. Now, the weaving process begins.
In the knitting process, we see two different types. One is the weft and the other is the warp knitting. In weft knitting, one spool of yarn is used while in warp knit, many spools are interwoven. People prefer the fabric made with warp knit because it does not run and it does not stretch. The common t-shirts one sees are weft knit. So, they stretch more but are apt to run.
Processes involved in fabric making
For making high quality fabric, the textile companies in India incorporate a series of processes. This includes carbonizing, peaching, antipilling, suede making, brushing, Nano finish, stay finish, gold finish, wicking, and moisture management among others. This helps make the fabric stain repellent, UV resistant, anti-static, anti-microbial, and wrinkle resistant depending on the demand. China, along with Bangladesh and South Korea account for over 63% of the cotton yarn exports from India. Textile design is a growing industry. Use of design is prevalent in all our rugs, towels, carpets, and our clothing.